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CORA stands for COriolis Re-Analysis. It is an oceanographic in situ temperature and salinity dataset on global ocean. [1] [2] [3]

Public documentation about CORA dataset for users.

CORA33 allTEMP.png

Data sources of CORA

CORA dataset is an extraction of the CORIOLIS database at a given date. CORIOLIS database receive oceanographic (physical and chimical) real-time data from global observatories network and delayed-time data from various institutes/consortiums.

Real-time data

  • Argo profilers data come from [4]
  • OceanSites buoys and moorings data (TAO-TRITON-PIRATA-RAMA moored buoys) come from [5]
  • EGO gliders network
  • GTSPP surface drifters and thermosalinographs network from [6]

Delayed time data

Coriolis database also retreives delayed time dataset when they are available:

  • SeaSurfaceSalinity labelised observatory system for salinographs data
  • MEMO labelised observatory system for sea mamals data

Quality Flags meaning

quality code meaning
0 No Quality Check was performed
1 Good data
2 Probably good data
3 Bad data that are potentially correctable
4 bad data
5 Value changed
6 Not used
7 Not used
8 Interpolated value
9 missing value

Distributed products

  • raw data organized in year subdirectories and files sorted per date and per type of file on observation levels + an index permitting quick browsing ( also archived per year in .tar or .tar.gz files
  • gridded fields (longitude = 720 ;latitude = 545 ;depth = 152 ) created by analysis at the end of the validation process (ex: also archived per year in .tar.gz files
  • standardized data sorted per parameter and per month on standard levels (0-2000m 152 levels) (ex: also archived per year in .tar.gz files

Files Format

The used netCDF format is Argo 2.3 (see Argo-NetCDF-sample-files). The number of variables depends of the data type and the instrument.

Each year of the CORA dataset is stored in a subdirectory YYYY (ex: 2011).

Files are sorted by date and by data type: (ex:

Files types

data type of files

type of data depending of sensor/platform/source Comments
XB XBT (expendable bathythermograph) high resolution from research vessels XBT data are also present in TE and BA files
BA data received from the BATHY channel low resolution data from GTS
TE data received from the TESAC data flow Low resolution data from GTS
PF argo profiler data real-time and delayed-mode (adjusted by Principals Investigators) profiles
HF High Frequency data coming from coastal moored buoys (max 3 levels of immersion, <200m, <0.01° of variation in latitude and longitude, more than one measure per day on at least 10 days in a year) This category concerns about 300 moorings in CORA.
CT CTD data coming from oceanographic vessels or sea mamals or submarine gliders
MO TAO, TRITON, PIRATA moorings data

Data types

Data type Files type Temperature accuracy Salinity accuracy Pressure/Depth accuracy
XBT XB, BA, TE 0.03-0.01°C
CTD OC, TE ,BA, CT 0.001-0.005°C 0.02-0.003µS cm-1 0.015-0.08%
XCTD BA, TE, OC, XB, CT 0.02°C 0.05-0.08µS cm-1 2%
Argo Floats PF, TE 0.01°C 0.01µS cm-1 2.4db
TAO/TRITON/PIRATA/RAMA TE, MO, BA *Standard ATLAS: 0.003-0.03°C (SST) 0.003-0.09°C (subsurface) *Next Gen. ATLAS 0.003-0.02°C 0.02µS cm-1 1db
Gliders CT, TE 0.001-0.005°C 0.02-0.003µS cm-1 N/A
Sea mammals TE , CT 0.01°c 0.02µS cm-1 N/A
Drifting buoys TE, BA 0.002-0.01°C 0.003-0.01µS cm-1
Coastal and other moorings TE, BA Nominal 1°C (Achieved 0.08°C) 0.001µS cm-1

User access

Main contact:

access via MyOcean

The dataset is available on request through MyOcean Service Desk ( registration ) You can also view and download gridded fields without request. Redirected to THREDDS

access ftp

require login and password, ask ftp CORA

access via THREDDS

THREDDS use OpenDAP architecture.

access via OceanDataView website

CORA dataset in OceanDataView format available here: ODV dataset soon

CORA versions

Current CORA dataset version is CORA3.2 released in december 2011.

official versions of CORA product

Date of release Time span Comments
CORA1.0 2007 1990-2005 Beta version of the dataset, full years extracted
CORA2.2 2009 1990-2008 Add of validation procedures (climatological checks) and gridding of the data
CORA3.2 2011 1990-2010 Add of validation procedures (duplicate check, XBT depth correction) integration of sea mammals data, automatisation of the update procedure
CORA3.3 beginning of 2012 1990-2011 OceanScience] review, add of year 2011, completion of anomalies feedback from Objective analysis towards CORA dataset and Coriolis database.
CORA4.0 april 2013 1990-2012 add ICES CTD since 1970, integration of time-series of moorings in MyOcean] NetCDF format, update of the whole years
CORA4.1 end 2013 1990-2012 full MyOcean NetCDF format release integrating historical data from SeaDataNet<ref></ref> project


How to know if a profile is an XBT?

Use the WMO_INST_TYPE variable and compare the value to a table like WMO table. Or use the variable PROBE_TYPE in monthly index files.

How to use julian date?

What to do if I spot anomalies in the netCDF files?


Does CORA include data anterior to 1990?

Not yet but it is not excluded in a future release since coriolis databse has data up to 1961.

How to make a reference to CORA dataset?

CORA dataset will have a DOI code soon but if you work with our dataset referre to this article: doi:10.5194/osd-9-1273-2012 C. Cabanes et al. The CORA dataset


CORA dataset is produced by Research and Development cell of CORIOLIS project in cooperation with the French CORIOLIS data-center hosted by Ifremer institute.

Current team

  • Gilles Reverdin in charge of the scientific prospectives of the team
  • Sylvie Pouliquen head of MyOcean<ref></ref> and Coriolis project, manager of the team for operational issues
  • Clément de Boyer Montegut doctor in oceanography in charge of the promotion and research part of the project
  • Antoine Grouazel engineer in charge of the data processing, collecting new data for Coriolis database and developing algorithm to validate the data.
  • Florian Kokosczka doctor

Former members

  • Cécile Cabanes doctor main author of CORA article and principal investigator for the first release of CORA dataset.


See also


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